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Aiden Murphy
Aiden Murphy

[S2E10] The Heart Matters WORK

Meghan may have gotten her heart, but everybody else's day pretty much sucked. Maggie got temporarily replace, Charles and Connor had a patient let them down, Natalie got publicly chewed out, Jeff got dumped, and Sarah got no sleep.

[S2E10] The Heart Matters

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While Sarah gets shoved into the deep end, Connor is asked to treat an "unusual patient." Call me crazy, but with the Chinese ambassador showing up in the promo, I'm thinking he might have to do heart surgery on a panda. I know it's out there, but I'm kind of dying for this to happen.

And perhaps giving the episode its title, Dr. Daniel Charles (Oliver Platt) has to decide what to do after the patient he approved for a heart transplant last week gets into a car wreck that could decrease her chances. Will she still get the heart, or will someone wind up heartbroken?

Maggie comes face to face with her past actions when an officer that previously arrested her arrives in critical condition. Following on from Uncharted Territory, the heart transplant patient gets into a car crash. Dr. Manning and Dr. Halstead deal with a situation that goes horribly wrong.

Officer Kate Windham arrives at Med, and Maggie is surprised to see her. Dr Choi tends to her with Jeff and they notice that she is completely unresponsive. Maggie tells Jeff that it was the officer who arrested her the year before. Sergeant Platt from CPD also arrives with a number of other officers all waiting to hear on Kate. However, Dr Choi tells them she is brain dead. He then tells them that as she is an organ donor, they will keep her on life support until they find the suitable donors. Maggie comes to help but Kate's husband, Darryl, recognises her and refuses to let her in. Platt asks Ethan to find another nurse but he says there are no personal vendettas here and that Maggie can do a professional job, but Trudy isn't impressed and threatens to take it up with Sharon. Jeff doesn't understand the fuss over the arrest and April tells him that Kate arrested Maggie because she thought Maggie interfered a police investigation. Maggie finds the possible heart recipient and Sharon comes to tell her that she is off Kate's case and that April will be taking over - Maggie isn't happy.

MG: Ivan Frantz did not end up on cruise ships. He chose, instead, to devote his life to studying heart disease; specifically, to understanding the role of cholesterol and blood lipids in heart attacks. He took his research seriously; Robert Frantz says that his father raised his five boys according to the best practices of nutritional science.

IF: This guy that was the head of that down there, he used to come up and visit me once in a while to see if I was doing what I was supposed to do with the NIH money. He only, he wanted to play chess, so every time he would come up here, we'd have to get together in the evening and play chess [laughs]. So it was starting to become a kind of an old boys' network. And I, I told him that I thought that that was something that, that then I should do, was to organize a big study than the general population to find out if there really was a relationship between diet, cholesterol, and heart disease.

There are lots of ways to analyze the effect that diet has on health. You can do an observational study, for example. Identify tens of thousands of people, have them fill out a questionnaire on their diet at regular intervals over many years, then keep track of when they die and what they die of and look for patterns. That's what an epidemiological study is. Frantz had a colleague at the University of Minnesota, named Ancel Keys, who conducted maybe the most famous epidemiological study of diet and health in history. For 25 years, Keys collected data on about 12,000 middle age men in Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, Finland, the Netherlands, Japan, and the United States. And he came to the conclusion that the people eating what he called "a Mediterranean diet," lots of fish, vegetables, olive oil, and very little saturated fat, those people had the fewest heart attacks. Keys was massively influential.

The problem is epidemiological studies are really tricky. For example, in France, people eat lots of butter and cheese and things cooked in fat, yet they have really low rates of heart disease. France was not included in the seven country study. Would Ancel Keys' results have been different if he'd added France and done an eight country study? With epidemiological studies, you can get in real trouble if you pick the wrong populations. And how does Keys know that's all the olive oil and fish and vegetables of the Mediterranean diet that make people from those places live so long? He's noticed an association between that diet and good health, but an epidemiological study can't prove causation. Many years later, another researcher went back and reanalyzed Keys' data and showed that people's consumption of sugar was a much better predictor of their health than their consumption of saturated fat.

MG: The Minnesota portion of the heart study took years to set up. It involved 6 different mental hospitals around Minnesota and one nursing home, for a total of more than 9,000 research subjects. It ran for five years, from 1968 to 1973, with a long follow up period. To this day, it stands as one of the most rigorous diet trials ever conducted.

MG: Human beings need at least some linoleic acid for nutritional purposes. But in our attempt to keep our hearts healthier, we've essentially started to put vegetable oils in everything. Ramsden estimates that up until 100 years ago, human beings would have gotten roughly 2% to 3% of their calories from linoleic acid. Now we're eating three, four, even five times that much. And the thing about linoleic acid is it's not benign. It builds up in certain tissues, it may play a role in inflammation. So what does it mean that we've suddenly decided to consume large quantities of something so problematic?

In all of the mountains of data collected half a century ago in the name of studying cholesterol, there should be an answer to the linoleic acid question. Ramsden first comes across something called The Sydney Diet Heart Study, the Australian counterpart to the big heart studies that were going on in the United States at the same time. He needs the raw data, but the study's main authors are long dead. One of the research assistants on the project, though, is still alive. Ramsden tracks him down. I think you know what happens next.

Let me just read to you from the conclusion of Ramsden's research article on the Minnesota study. It's in the British Medical Journal, and remember that this is a super cautious scientist speaking in the final paragraphs of a peer reviewed research paper that was probably rewritten and rewritten 10 times to tone it down as much as possible. It concludes, "Available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that replacement of saturated fat with linoleic acid effectively lowers serum cholesterol but does not support the hypothesis that this translates to a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease or all causes." He's saying, "There's no good evidence that reducing saturated fat makes you live longer. The best clinical trials we have reached the opposite conclusion." That's why Ramsden calls up Ivan Frantz's son before he publishes his findings; he has to.

How do you feel about that?" Which means, "Have I made you complicit in the betrayal of your own father?" And what does Frantz say? This is the heart of it. Frantz says, "No, I'm not betraying my father. If my father were alive, he would have done the same thing, rummage through his basement and given you the same computer tapes."

I took my father's presence for granted for as long as he was alive and when he died, the first shocking realization was that I had to find a way to keep him alive in my heart, to honor his memory. How do we do that? Not by honoring our parents' beliefs; we are different people than they are, born in different eras, shaped by different forces. What we are obliged to honor in our parents is their principles, the rules by which they lived their lives.

Extended: The Ninja finally arrive on the Dark Island, where the Stone Army prepares for the final battle and Garmadon mines Dark Matter, the purest of Evil from the heart of the island, to build a Super-Weapon that can turn the tide of the war. Meanwhile, the Ninja learn that the Temple of Light is where they can both receive their elemental powers and where Lloyd can gain the skill of the Golden Dragon, a fighting style practiced only by the First Spinjitzu Master, after striking the 'Instrument of Peace'. The Tinkerer and Nya meanwhile builds the Ninja new vehicles: a drill-tank for Cole and a robot for Kai. As the Stone Army searches for them and Sensei Wu, Misako, the Tinkerer and Lloyd guard the hidden Bounty, the Ninja infiltrate Garmadon's camp and Zane finds and retrieves his falcon, with Jay locating the Temple while he is gone. Zane succeeds, but is spotted and the Ninja have to save him. Running from the army, they narrowly escape and go back to get the machines. The Ninja head for the Temple of Light, narrowly avoiding capture by the Stone Army. Inside the temple, they find murals depicting all their major victories, and they find a great bell hanging above a strange design on the floor where the Ninjas' symbols reside. Lloyd strikes the bell, the 'Instrument of Peace', and activates the power of the Temple, gifting the four Ninja with Elemental swords and kimonos. They then feed their power into Lloyd just as the Stone Army attacks, imbuing him with his full power. With their new powers, the Stone Army is defeated and the Ninja get ready to face the final battle. But the Celestial Clock is still counting down, and the Overlord tells Garmadon that when it reaches zero, there will be nothing to prevent Darkness from winning.[citation needed]

Lord Garmadon oversees the army's mining of Dark Matter, pure evil in the heart of the island, to build a superweapon that can turn the tide of the war. Unbeknownst to the heroes, The Overlord has sensed the ninja's presence and tells Lord Garmadon to find them before they can reach the Temple of Light. 041b061a72


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